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Conscious Annaka Harris. Political Worship Bernd Wannenwetsch. Down Girl Kate Manne. Courage Debbie Ford. Midlife Kieran Setiya. Pimp Iceberg Slim. Other books in this series. Sympathy and Solidarity Sandra Lee Bartky. Being Yourself Diana Tietjens Meyers. Disability Bioethics Jackie Leach Scully. Socializing Care Maurice Hamington. Moral Psychology Peggy Desautels.

The Ethics of Care

Varieties of Feminist Liberalism Amy R. Connected Lives Ruth E. Global Feminist Ethics Rebecca Whisnant. Gender Struggles Constance L. The Other Within Fredrika Scarth. Pornography Embodied Joan Mason-Grant. Moral Contexts Margaret Urban Walker. Context Chapter 12 Ethical Globalization? Review quote Finally, a serious, interesting and thought-provoking discussion of care and caregiving by serious scholars.

Socializing Care will be of interest to all human service professionals who have struggled with their identity as "professional caregivers" AKA "women's work" and other dilemmas associated with professional caregiving. Hamington and Miller locate the discussion of care at the nexus of private family-based caregiving responsibilities and public legal obligations. This analysis will be a welcome addition to the human service literature and an important resource for future professional caregivers.

Humphreys, Professor and Director, Institute for the Advancement of Political Social Work Practice, University of Connecticut School of Soc Socializing Care is a vibrant example of how feminist philosophy can come to life as social policy with care at the center. A fabulous collection of essays that shows not only the intelligence, but the practicality of feminist care ethics.

Maurice Hamington

The essays challenge us to rethink classical liberalism and its focus on autonomy and rights. There is a call for a fuller account of what it is to be a person, a citizen, and a government. Sensitive to the dangers of a paternalistic state, these essays insist that care is part of the proper role of the state, and provide a rich array of examples from which to learn.

Criticism is often levied that care ethics is too narrow in scope and fails to extend to issues of social justice. Socializing Care attempts to dispel that criticism. Contributors to the volume demonstrate how the ethics of care factors into a variety of social policies and institutions, and can indeed be useful in thinking about a number of different social problems. Divided into two sections, the first looks at care as a model for an evaluative framework that rethinks social institutions, liberal society, and citizenship at a basic conceptual level.

Some authors concertedly argued that philosophers and theorists erred in their understanding of what seemed to be gendered differences in ethical and moral reasoning. In the seventeenth century, some public intellectuals published treatises arguing that women were as rational as men and should be afforded the education that would allow them to develop their moral character.

They argued that since females are rational, their unequal access to learning was immoral and unjustifiable. They explored meta-ethical questions about the preconditions for morality, including what sorts of agents can be moral and whether morality is equally possible for different sexes. Criticizing the philosophical assumptions underpinning practices that denied girls adequate education, Wollstonecraft articulated an Enlightenment ideal of the social and moral rights of women as the equal of men.

The revolutions of the Enlightenment age motivated some men as well as women to reconsider inequities in education at a time when notions of universal human rights were gaining prominence. Yet the notion of universal humanism tended to prioritize virtues traditionally seen as masculine. In Europe and North America, nineteenth-century moral arguments coalesced around material issues that would later be appreciated by feminist ethicists as importantly intersecting.

Offering the first occurrence of the term feminisme Offen , the nineteenth century is characterized by a plurality of approaches to protofeminist ethics, that is, ethical theorizing that anticipated and created the groundwork for modern feminist concepts. These include some theories consistent with the universal humanism of Wollstonecraft and Condorcet and others emphasizing the differences between the sexes in order to argue for the superiority of feminine morality. Mill [] Like their Enlightenment forerunners, Mill and Taylor argue that women ought to have equal rights and equal access to political and social opportunities.

Feminist sociology - Wikipedia

Mill and Taylor tend to overemphasize the roles of women who are wives. Attitudes about the reasons for the moral goodness of such achievements differed. In contrast, other Socialist movements expressed radical views of the equality of men and women not by attributing distinctive or greater moral virtues to women, but by challenging systems of privilege due to sex, race, and class Taylor The revolutionaries included public thinkers who advocated communal property and sexual equality, and who criticized the involvement of state and church in marriage. Their arguments about practical and feminist ethics influenced Emma Goldman and other turn-of-the-century thinkers. Philosophical thinkers of different backgrounds gained greater access to education and printing presses in the nineteenth century, resulting in a plurality of approaches to the project of understanding, criticizing, and correcting how gender operates within our moral beliefs and practices.

For example, the attachment of some protofeminist thinkers to the domestic virtues shaped their ethical recommendations. Some white and middle-class activists argued for the end of slavery and, later, against the subordination of emancipated women of color precisely on the grounds that they wished to extend the privileges that white and middle-class women enjoyed in the domestic and private sphere, maintaining the social order while valorizing domestic feminine goodness.

Her timeless concern for the U. Hers is a normative argument for appreciating the contributions that both traditionally feminine and masculine values could offer to a well-balanced ethics. Leaders included Emma Goldman, whose anarchism was developed as a response to Marx and Marxism Fiala Although early twentieth-century protofeminists differed in their beliefs as to whether men and women were morally different in character, they generally shared a belief in Progressive ideals of moral and social improvement if only humankind brought fair and rational thinking to bear on ethical issues.

The beginning of the century was characterized by remarkably optimistic thinking even on the part of more radical theorists who appreciated the deep harms of oppressive social organizations. In the U. Unfortunately, this sentiment would decline with the start of World War I and the consequent demise of optimistic beliefs in the powers of human rationality to bring about moral progress. Beauvoir first self-identified as a feminist in Schwarzer , 32 , and consistently refused the label of a philosopher despite having taught courses in philosophy Card , 9.

Yet beginning in the s, both her Ethics of Ambiguity [] and The Second Sex [] were widely read and quickly appreciated as important to feminist ethics Card , 1. As works of existentialist morality, they emphasized that we are not all simply subjects and individual choosers but also objects shaped by the forces of oppression Andrew , Like the protofeminists described above, Beauvoir focused on the embodied experiences and social situations of women.

In these pivotal works, she advanced the case that embodiment and social situatedness are not only relevant to human existence, but are the stuff of human existence, so crucial that philosophy ought not ignore them Andrew , In The Second Sex , she argued that some men in philosophy managed the bad-faith project of both ignoring their own sex-situatedness and yet describing women as the Other and men as the Self. Because men in philosophy take themselves to be paradigmatically human and take it upon themselves to characterize the nature of womankind as different from men, Beauvoir said that men socially construct woman as the Other.

Instead, by the middle of the twentieth century, some influential philosophers in Europe and the Americas had moved toward approaches that often led to describing both gender and ethics as irrelevant to philosophical discourse Garry In the fifty years that feminist ethics has been a subject of philosophical scholarship in initially Western and increasingly international discourse, theorists have considered metaethical, theoretical, and practical questions.

One main area of inquiry addresses whether and why there may be meaningful differences in feminine and masculine priorities of care and justice in normative theory. Concern about feminist methods of articulating ethical theories arise during this time and continue. These debates can be found in the scholarship of intersectionality, Black feminist thought and women of color feminism, transnational feminism, queer theory, disability studies, and twenty-first century criticisms of feminist ethics.

They are of special concern whenever feminist ethicists seem to uphold a gender binary and simplistic conceptualizations of woman as a category. Questions about the shortcomings of traditional ethical theories, about which virtues constitute morally good character in contexts of oppression, and about which kinds of ethical theories will ameliorate gendered oppressions and evils generate critical scholarship in every decade. Gender binarism, which is the view that there are only two genders—male and female—and that everyone is only one of them Dea a, , is assumed by most feminist ethicists in the s and s Jaggar ; Daly Some of these feminists criticize male supremacy without thereby preferring female supremacy Frye ; Card ; Hoagland Other feminist ethicists offer radically different views.

Some of them argue that separatism allows a setting in which to create alternative ethics, rather than merely responding to the male-dominated ethical theories traditionally discussed in the academy. In deep disagreement, philosophers such as Alison Jaggar argue against separatism as being in any way productive of a different and morally better world. Related arguments for androgynous approaches to ethics are influential in arguments supporting androgyny, gender bending, and gender-blending that are prevalent in the s Butler ; Butler , and gender-eliminativist and humanist approaches to feminist ethics and social philosophy that are prevalent in the twenty-first century LaBrada ; Mikkola ; Ayala and Vasilyeva ; Haslanger One criticism of gender binarism is that its assumption marginalizes nonconforming individuals.

The work of psychologist Carol Gilligan therefore has great influence on philosophers interested in just such evidence for substantial sex differences in moral reasoning, despite the fact that Gilligan herself does not describe these differences as polar. Further, the development of masculinity typically involves valuing autonomy, rights, disconnection from others, and independence, while seeing other persons and intimate relationships as dangers or obstacles to pursuing those values.

In normative theory and applied ethics, care-work and caring in workplace relationships have come to receive more attention in twenty-first century philosophy than previously, as appreciation for the ethical demands of relational support-provision and client-centered or helping professions come to be influenced by variations on the ethic of care Kittay ; Feder and Kittay ; Tronto ; Lanoix ; Reiheld Some feminist ethicists have argued that the ethic of care valorizes the burdened history of femininity associated with caring Card If that burdened feminine history includes attention to particular relationships at the expense of attention to wider social institutions and systematic political injustice, then the ethic of care runs the risk of lacking a feminist vision for changing systematic and institutional forms of oppression Hoagland ; Bell Further worries about the ethic of care include whether unidirectional caring enables the exploitation of caregivers Houston ; Card ; Davion , and whether such caring excludes moral responsibilities to strangers and individuals we may affect without meeting interpersonally Card , thereby risking an insular ethic that ignores political and material realities Hoagland The above criticisms tend to proceed from a view that it is problematic that an ethic of care is predicated on seeing femininity as valuable.

They suggest that critical feminist perspectives require us to doubt the value of femininity. However, it remains controversial whether femininity is necessarily defined in relationship to masculinity and is thereby an inauthentic or insufficiently critical perspective for feminist ethics, or whether femininity is a distinctive contribution of moral and valuing agents to a feminist project that rejects or corrects some of the errors and excesses of legacies of masculinity Irigaray ; Harding ; Tong ; Bartky One way that some philosophers offer to resolve the possible tension between conceptions of femininity and feminism is to bring intersectional approaches to the question as to whose femininity is being discussed.

Concerns that femininity is antithetical to a critical feminist perspective seem to presuppose a conception of femininity as passive, gentle, obedient, emotional, and dependent, in contrast with a conception of masculinity as its opposite. The insights of philosophers of Black Feminism, intersectionality, queer theory, critical race theory, disability studies, and transfeminism, among others, contribute to a view that there is no universal definition of femininity or of the category of woman that neatly applies to all women.

Some of these philosophers suggest that the distinctive moral and valuing experiences of women and individuals of all genders may be unjustly ignored or denied by a conception of women or femininity that turns out to be white, ableist, and cisgender Crenshaw ; Collins ; Wendell ; hooks ; Tremain ; Serano ; McKinnon Although intersectional insights can be found in the works of writers even from the distant past, the predominance of intersectionality in feminist ethics today is largely owed to Black feminists and critical race theorists, who were the first to argue for the significance of intersectionality Crenshaw ; Collins ; Gines ; Bailey For example, when Black men, but not any women, were permitted to work on a General Motors factory floor, and white women, but not any Black persons, were permitted to work in the General Motors secretarial pool, then Black women were discriminated against as Black women.

That is, they were not permitted to have any job at General Motors due to living at an intersection of categories of identity that are treated separately in the law Crenshaw Intersectionality is pursued in the interests of expanding understandings of differences and accounting for the experiences of people previously spoken for, if addressed at all, rather than consulted. Not all philosophers who embrace appreciation of the insights of intersectionality agree on whether it yields a distinct methodology, or a starting point for better inquiry, or a better conception of experiences of oppression Khader ; Garry Intersectionality is not without its critics in feminist ethics.

Other feminist ethicists raise tensions in intersectional theory that are not intended to undermine the approach but to ask for elaboration of its details, including its very definition Nash The appeal for these clarifications, however, may reflect traditions that intersectionality is dedicated to disrupting, since it is made in the context of the pursuit of justification, habits of opposition, and a narrow sense of definitional work that is typical in philosophy, a field that has a reputation for lacking appreciation for diverse practitioners Dotson If there is a commonality between all of the above feminist ethicists, it is their interest in provoking reconsideration of ethical theories that failed either to notice or to care when the perspective of the philosopher so criticized was taken for either a generic truth about moral theory or a gender-specific and false description of human nature.